Pipe Sock

The Pipe Sock system, a patented technology (Patent #US08087431 B2), is superior in performance to similar products through its ability to resolve problems associated with crevice corrosion resulting from coating failure due to direct metal-to-metal contact. It consists of pre-formed size specific fiberglass wear pad and a protective modified syl polymer adhesive coating system (Black Magic™) resulting in a high-strength crevice corrosion solution. The Pipe Sock system offers a complete non-intrusive piping remediation with the flexibility of accommodating various temperature requirements.


• Wear Pads
• Pipe Supports
• Pipe Isolators
• Pipe Protectors
• Sleepers Contact Us


• Wear Pads
• Pipe Supports
• Pipe Isolators
• Pipe Protectors
• Sleepers Contact Us
Pipe Sock Crevice Corrosion Mitigation System

The Pipe Sock system is ideal for all pipe support applications where metal-to-metal contact and crevice corrosion can occur. Contact us if you would like a copy of the technical data. 


  • Aluminum
  • Cast-iron
  • Concrete
  • Copper
  • Carbon steel
  • Galvanized
  • Lead
  • Stainless steel
  • Steel



• Stops crevice corrosion due to coating failures
• Eliminates need for mixing or special equipment
• Installs easily with minimal surface prep
• Prevents metal-to-metal contact
Pipe Wrap Composites
Have questions? Check out our frequently asked questions regarding our Pipe Wrap composite wrap systems. Contact us if you would like to know more.

Milliken Infrastructure Solutions currently provides solutions for these industries:

  • Oil & Gas:
    • Plants and Refineries
    • Transmission Pipelines
    • Marine and Offshore
    • Storage Tanks
  • Industrial
  • Municipal
  • Mining
  • Power Generation 

Browse our pipe repair and engineering solutions in our interactive Oil & Gas industry map. 

There are many variables to consider when designing a composite repair, including: 

  • operating pressures and temperatures
  • defect type and severity 
  • pipe geometry
  • external or internal chemical presence 

Finding a product that is engineered to the exact specifications of a given scenario will not only offer the best design required to provide a functional and lasting repair, but it can also reduce costs. There are many other conditions, such as bending or combined loading, that the repair must address. 

These conditions can more easily be considered if the repair is custom designed instead of assuming that an off-the-shelf product has already considered these loads. “Pre-designed,” ready-made repair products should only be used to address very specific situations, which should be clearly and plainly understood by their manufacturer and communicated to you. 

Read a more detailed answer under Misconception 1 in our white paper: “5 Common Composite Repair Misconceptions.”

The universal answer, no matter who the manufacturer, is yes. Inspection standards can be vague and the development on education is lacking, but it’s the responsibility of the operator, who is the final decision-maker on product selection, to know if the composites have been inspected for use.  

There are several non-destructive tests (NDTs) to analyze defects within the pipe’s walls and the surrounding composite material, regardless of composite the manufacturer. 

  • Tap Test
  • Phased Array
  • EMAT
  • Pulsed Eddy Current
  • Digital Radiography
  • Microwave
  • Thermography 

Read a more detailed answer under our Composite Inspection: Non-Destructive Tests (NDTs) document or under Misconception 2 in our white paper: “5 Common Composite Repair Misconceptions.” 

The words “temporary” and “permanent” seem to mean something different to each operator, manufacturer and auditor. A general definition for both could be:

  • Temporary repair: the repair is installed for a specified, usually short, amount of time with scheduled inspections or a planned service removal
  • Permanent repair: the repair is installed without requirements for inspections other than routine, entire-pipe inspections 

All internal wall loss defects, external abrasion or extremely high fatigue scenarios will be treated as temporary, as well as cracking in the composite or further corrosion growth under the repair. If no growth is expected, however, meaning the current and end-of-life conditions are predicted to be the same, then a permanent composite repair becomes a viable option, but not before considering composite creep and cyclic fatigue life of the composite and the pipe.  

Read a more detailed answer under Misconception 3 in our white paper: “5 Common Composite Repair Misconceptions.” 

As it currently stands, composite repairs should only be considered a temporary repair for situations where the crack or crack-like feature cannot be removed without additional, focused testing. As a temporary repair, composites can bridge the gap until a more permanent solution can be installed. 

Read a more detailed answer under Misconception 4 in our white paper: “5 Common Composite Repair Misconceptions.”

Maintenance engineers should pay close attention to a product’s fabric or laminate construction. Uni-, bi-, tri- or quad-directional fabrics are important structural characteristics to make sure you’re selecting the right composite for your repair. 

  • Uni-directional: The fibers in this material are oriented and aligned in a single direction, making these fabrics extremely strong in that direction but extremely weak to any loads not parallel with the fiber construction.  

  • Bi-directional: These fabrics are created in a 0°/90° woven configuration, which can support both the hoop and axial stresses if designed accordingly, but it’s weak when exposed to torsional or shear forces along the 45° line. The thin composition of bi-directional fabrics makes them relatively flexible and easily formed to complex shapes when wet or dry. 

  • Tri-directional: The fabric is typically engineered in a stacked fashion (great for leak repairs) with strength in the hoop direction. The alignment along the 0°, +45° and -45° lines provides greater load-bearing capabilities and makes it the best option for conforming to irregular shapes. 

  • Quad-directional: This composite is relatively strong in every direction and is ideal for leak repairs due to its strength and sequencing. Its thick- and stiffness in all directions makes these fabrics extremely difficult to apply to complex shapes. Quad-directional fabrics have the highest average overall strength and modulus in stress but the lowest in any single direction. 

  • Randomly oriented: These fabrics contain no directional preference and are typically used in low-stress applications in a preventative measure because their construction provides minimal strength.  

Read a more detailed answer under Misconception 5 in our white paper: “5 Common Composite Repair Misconceptions.”

  • Tap Test: A great preliminary test to determine if further inspection is needed. An inspector uses a metal object, like a quarter, to tap along the outside of the composite and use the resulting sound to determine if a defect exists within the composite. More sophisticated methods exist for this form of testing: Tap Hammer, RD3 and CATT 

  • Phased Array: This ultrasonic method can be used to detect defects within the pipe, voids between the pipe and the composite repair, and the voids or delamination within the composite itself. The results can be viewed as either a C-scan (2D, top-down view) or a B-scan (2D, side-on view) 

  • EMAT: This method inspects pipes and composites by producing electromagnetic waves that interact with the conductive materials found in some composite repairs, which give off their own electromagnetic waves. The combination of the waves creates sound waves that are used to locate damages and defects. EMAT does not need to come into direct contact with the inspected area. 

  • Pulsed Eddy Current: This electromagnetic testing method uses a transmitter to produce alternating currents that induce looping currents, or eddy currents, in nearby conductive materials—in this case the substrate. Existing defects interfere with the flow of the current and are presented in the form of a color-coded grid based on severity of wall loss. 

  • Digital Radiography: This method, also known as X-ray, uses penetrating radiation to inspect delamination and disbanding within the tested materials and find defects in both the composite and the pipe wall. This option is primarily chosen for pipes that are already completely exposed. Transmitted waves that haven’t been interrupted by defects help form an image that gives an actual photographical representation of the insides of the pipe or composite.  

  • Microwave: This method detects delamination and disbonds in non-conductive materials, so not carbon fiber composites. Transmitted waves are reflected back when meeting a void or discontinuation in material, and the voids are identified as areas of delamination, disbonding or gouged composite and case the microwaves to be reflected back to the inspection instrument at a different rate.  

  • Thermography: Thermography can find defects by detecting the change of thermal activity within a material and creating a heat map of the surface of a stressed object by using an infrared camera and equipment. This method is better suited for defects closer to the surface because of the energy required is higher the deeper the defect is in the ground. 

Read a more detailed answer under Misconception 2 in our white paper: “5 Common Composite Repair Misconceptions.” 

Our Products At Work in the Field

Pipe Sock™ System: On-Site Field Fabrication & Installation for Unique/Odd Geometric Shaped Surfaces

West Texas
August 18, 2014

Project Overview
A pipeline terminal in West Texas was experiencing a lot of vibration, so the pipeline operator wanted to protect a select area sitting on a cement plate from further abrasive wear on the pipe's T-section. The area had limited clearance and a significant amount of ovality, so the pipeline operator reached out to many fiberglass pipe treatment manufacturers to try and find a solution for a preventative application. Due to the pipe's ovality, a pre-cured solution would not work.

Through brainstorming with the Milliken Infrastructure Solutions team, the operator found a way to complete the application through an on-site field fabrication of the Pipe Sock system.

The Solution
The surface was prepared using a wire wheel to remove any existing epoxy from the pipe. Then constrictor wrap was applied to the pipe support location, which would allow the mold to be easily removed after curing. The fabric was wetted and cut in order to stack the Pipe Sock system pieces to reach the thickness necessary for the area needing protection. The wet fabric was applied to the pipe support location, covered with peel-ply and left to cure overnight. 

When it was finished curing, the molded Pipe Sock system was removed from underneath the pipe and the surface was abraded from excess resin into a square shape. The system was pre-fit and marked, and then Black Magic™, a patented, modified seal polymer with great bonding properties and high elasticity, was applied to the surface of the pipe. The custom-formed Pipe Sock composite was then placed on top of the sealant and allowed to set. The edges were also sealed with Black Magic and allowed to cure. 

Repair Method
The customer was pleased with the outcome of the installation and has continued to utilize the Pipe Sock system due to the ease of application. 

Pipe Sock_Odd Geometry_West Texas_BeforePipe Sock_Odd Geometry_West Texas_Straight Edge MeasurementPipe Sock_Odd Geometry_West Texas_Mark for SecuringPipe Sock_Odd Geometry_West Texas_Black Magic AppliedPipe Sock_Odd Geometry_West Texas_After

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